How Does Instructional Design Work? The ADDIE Model Explained

To have an understanding of how Instructional Design works in general, take a look at each step or stage of the ADDIE model, one of the field’s most popular frameworks. The name “ADDIE” is an acronym for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Its name outlines the step-by-step process that the model follows.

An important note: ADDIE is only a framework. Just as in architecture where there are established structures or shapes you can use, it takes expertise and experience to turn this common knowledge into extraordinary designs.

  1. Analysis
    Gather and analyze data to validate whether instruction is the correct solution to a given problem. If it is, then the important elements in crafting the learning intervention are identified.
  2. Design
    The design of the learning program is based on the analysis results and is anchored on measurable objectives. During the design stage, the recommended content, instructional strategies, the delivery methodology and assessment activities to improve training effectiveness are identified.
  3. Development
    Development includes the actual preparation of instructional materials such as visuals, storyboards, participants’ handouts, online learning modules, and assessments or test materials.
  4. Implementation
    This is the actual delivery of the learning intervention, either face-to-face or via computer-assisted methods.
  5. Evaluation
    During evaluation, the objectives of the training are revisited and the performance of the learners is evaluated based on these objectives.

The ADDIE model may sound like a manual anyone can follow to become an instructional designer. But in reality, following the manual will not make you an instructional design expert. Nor will it guarantee that you can arrive at the same solution as others would.

This is why Learning & Performance Partners, Inc. (LPPI) thoroughly studies each stage, looks carefully into the elements and particulars involved, and adjusts the processes and design accordingly. There are also instances when another instructional design model will be more appropriate than ADDIE or when you will need to combine models for better results.